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Antibody cocktail treatment

Antibody cocktail treatment

  • Apollo Hospital in Delhi has started an “antibody cocktail treatment” for COVID-19 patients, who have mild symptoms and comorbidities.
  • It comprises neutralising monoclonal antibodies which are artificially created antibodies that aim to aid the body’s natural immune system.
  • Monoclonal antibodies are now relatively common & are used in treating Ebola, HIV, psoriasis etc.
  • For people whose immune systems are unable to make sufficient amounts of these antibodies, scientists provide a helping hand- using monoclonal antibodies.

Monoclonal antibodies can be created in the lab by exposing white blood cells to a particular antigen.

  • in order to increase the number of antibodies produced, a single white blood cell is cloned, which in turn is used to create identical copies of the antibodies.
  • In the case of Covid-19, scientists usually work with the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which facilitates the entry of the virus into the host cell.

The idea of delivering antibodies to treat a disease dates as far back as the 1900s, when Nobel-prize-winning German immunologist Paul Ehrlich proposed the idea of a 'Zauberkugel' (magic bullet), a compound which selectively targets a pathogen.

  • From then, it took eight decades of research to finally arrive at Muromonab-CD3, the world’s first monoclonal antibody to be approved for clinical use in humans.
  • Muromonab-CD3 is an immunosuppressant drug given to reduce acute rejection in patients with organ transplants.